Sociometry: The Study of Interpersonal Relationships in a Group

people holding shoulders sitting on wall

Sociometry is a method of investigating aspects of the creation of social connections in groups. Jacob Morner invented this approach in 1934, and it was later refined by several social scientists. Mr. Morener’s goal, like that of other scientists, including Mr. Beels, was to improve the general state of society and, in particular, human interactions. In a sociometric exam, each team member is asked to choose another team member. The replies of each member of the group can provide a variety of consequences, and by following the instructions of this notion, we can learn about each person’s status in the group and, as a result, come up with helpful knowledge about the group. Here, we want to inform you about the definitions of different relationship results from this method and tell you why this idea counts as a unique one. 

Sociometric Relationship Types

Relationships obtained through sociometric testing can be divided into two categories:

1) Relationships between desire and reluctance: Such relationships are usually achieved by asking which member of the group the respondent likes the most.

2) Relationship preferences (Mentally): Here the question arises as to who with whom most (or least) wants to have a specific and well-defined relationship. For example, who (what person) most wants to get guidance on a particular issue? Who does he most like to invite to his birthday or his brother’s wedding, or who wants to work in a factory next to him? As a result of these emotional tendencies and informal and spontaneous relationships, it is based on having both a positive aspect (who did you invite to the party) and a negative feature. In particular, its negative aspect, ie reluctance, is very decisive.

Furthermore, as a psychologist, Mr. Morner thought of the human race as a social system rather than individual difficulties and viewed the betterment of the human situation to be dependent on the reform of society as a whole. In the form of this study, he has thought of modest and practically usable approaches, and as a consequence, in the way of evaluating and giving answers, he provides a sociometric methodology that in its time was a comprehensive method of examining the status of the community. It is classified as both a group and an individual. We also discuss the characteristics of this approach.

Features of Sociometric Technique

However, in terms of method, this technique is the same as the inquiry technique, during which questions are asked from the respondents and answers are received. But at the same time, this technique has the characteristics that distinguish it from other techniques, which are mentioned below:

  • In this technique, research and extraction are done almost simultaneously and the researcher reaches the desired results relatively soon.
  • Due to the development of theories, methods, and techniques of data collection in the social sciences, the application of sociometric techniques was more focused on the study of social groups.
  • Therefore, although sociometry can be applied to a large number of respondents, today, usually, the number of people studying is more limited than the query technique, that is, in fact, the number of members of a group. Therefore, today the main purpose of this technique is to assess the status of a group in different dimensions:
    • On the one hand, in terms of correlation and conflict within a group and comparing it with other groups.
    • On the other hand, people tend to each other and thus determine the base and popularity of people in a group.
    • Therefore, the situation of a group with special questions is analyzed and examined in different dimensions, and at the same time, it is extracted in different ways. This technique can be used in a classroom, in an organization, in a factory, in a group of representatives, or on a sports team.

  • The important point in Moreno’s work is that, unlike sociologists who only study and analyze a situation, after examining the situation, he has also started treatment and is trying to strengthen the bonds between people and improve the situation of the group.
  • The sociometric technique is used in various fields and it is possible to understand the type of social relations and connections between individuals and the position of individuals in a group in a relatively short time, in a relatively short time.

Methods of Presenting and Extracting Sociometric Results

  1. Sociogram

The results are visually presented in the sociogram. As the number of participants rises, the sociogram gets more complex, hence it is advised that smaller sociograms (part of the relationship components) be constructed. For example, he produced a partial sociogram representing the initial choices or rejections. It is also feasible to combine the two approaches, for example, to display a partial sociogram of the initial choices and first guessed choices. Individual sociograms are a type of partial sociogram in which just the sociometric position of one of the participants (votes cast and cast) is represented. Relationships with other persons are not taken into account in such circumstances.

  1. Sociomatris

Although this approach is less visible than sociograms, it offers numerous advantages for extraction. It includes a table containing information about the symbols and their meanings. As a result, we may be able to grasp the outcome more easily and clearly.

To Sum Up

Sociometry may also estimate your group’s base and then compare it to reality. This research will be valuable in societies where there is a high level of flattery. The less the discrepancy between the estimated and real basis, the better the person in control of the situation in the group or country. In general, sociometry may be utilized in both small and large groups, such as nations, to supply us with detailed information on each individual. In certain situations, it can also reveal the prospects of certain groups in that community or under certain conditions.

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